Clean Fleets

Select language

Case studies

The case studies below outline concrete procurement activities of public authorities and fleet operators. They illustrate real examples of vehicle procurement in detail including results and lessons learned. We hope to inspire others to learn from and replicate these examples. Each case study includes contact details for those who would like to discuss the activity in more detail.


Individual case studies

Electrifying the fleet: procurement of electric passenger cars in Rotterdam

  • Two-year framework contract for 22 electric passenger cars
  • Zero tailpipe emissions leading to improved local air quality
  • Zero CO2 emissions when driving – savings of 33 tonnes/year against a standard passenger car

Download the case study (PDF)

 Source: Roteb Lease                                                                 

Source: Transport for LondonInduction charging diesel-electric hybrid buses for London

  • World’s first diesel-electric hybrid double decker buses with induction charging infrastructure
  • Aims to operate in zero emission electric mode for 80% of its operation
  • Annual savings of 580kg NOx and 33 tonnes CO2 compared to a standard Euro V model

Source: Transport for London

Download the case study (PDF)

Source: City of Stockholm

Procuring green school transport services in the City of Stockholm

  • Passenger cars meet national clean vehicle definition
  • Average CO2 emissions set per km driven
  • CO2 emission limits set per vehicle type

Download the case study (PDF)

                                                                                                                    Source: City of Stockholm

Source: Freie Hansestadt BremenIncreasing efficiency of administration’s fleet management – Car-sharing in Bremen

  • CO2 emissions reduced to 102 g CO2/km
  • Reduced cost per km, and staff costs
  • Easy to use system and high user acceptance

Download the case study (PDF)


Source: Freie Hansestadt Bremen             

Reforming the public fleet - Electric and CNG vehicles in Ghent

  • 4 year framework contracts for electric and CNG cars and light delivery vehicles
  • 100% of Ghent’s electricity comes from renewable sources
  • Estimated volume over the duration of the contract: 94 electric vehicles and 36 CNG vehicles
  • Close involvement of end users in market consultation and testing phases

    Download the case study (pdf) 

    Source: City of Ghent

    Slovenian Joint Procurement of Cars and Vans

    • Technology-neutral joint procurement
    • Operational lifetime costs used as award criteria
    • A decrease of up to 45 g/km CO2 per vehicle

      Download the case study (pdf) 

      Source: NRMA Motoring & services, CC BY 2.0

      Freiburger Verkehr AG – Retrofitting buses

      • Buses retrofitted to meet stricter emissions standards
      • The entire fleet now meets a minimum Euro 5 standard. CO and NMHC emissions reduced by 92.5%, NOx by 81.5% and particulates by 78%.

        Download the case study (pdf)

        Source: VAG Freiburg

        A Fleet of Biomethane Buses in Reading

        • 34 certified biomethane EEV buses
        • Lower life cycle costs 
        • 30-50% less NOx emissions than comparable Euro V diesel buses

          Download the case study (pdf)


          Monetising emissions for a lease contract in Bremen

          • Low emission vehicles available for all city staff
          • CO2 emissions between 96 & 139 gCO2/km
          • CVD operational lifetime cost methodology used to monetise emissions

            Download the case study (pdf)

            Source: Stadt Bremen

            First EEV buses in Baia Mare, Romania

            • First EEV (Enhanced environmentally friendly) buses ordered in Romania.
            • Emissions of NOx, NMHC and PM considerably lower than current diesel Solaris buses.

              Download the case study (pdf)

              Joint Procurement of EVs and PHEVs in Sweden

              • Buyers’ group of 296 organisations
              • Energy consumption < 0.37 kWh/km and emissions < 50g CO2/km
              • 34 tonnes CO2 saved in first 1.5 years (95% reduction)

              Download the case study (pdf)


              Source: City of Stockholm


              The New Bus for London – Diesel/ electric hybrid

              • First bus specifically designed for London in over 50 years.
              • Iconic design combined with modern hybrid technology and expectations.
              • Emits less than half the CO2 and NOx than a current London diesel bus in service
              • Largest order of hybrid buses ever placed in Europe.

              Download the case study (pdf)

              Source: TfL


              • 12 electric microbuses purchased for the city centre      
              • New technology: batteries charged through tram’s overhead power lines at end stations
              • Pre-procurement test phase with four buses

              Download the case study (pdf)

              Source: Johannes Zinner / Wiener Linien 

              European Commission GPP case studies

              Since January 2010, the European Commission has collected examples of GPP in practice to illustrate how European public authorities have successfully launched ‘green’ tenders, and provide guidance for others who wish to do the same.

              The Clean Fleets team has made a selection from these case studies related to the procurement of clean vehicles, available below:

              Electric car-sharing service in Paris

                • 3,000 all-electric cars available for public use across Paris and 47 surrounding municipalities
                • Saving of nearly 630,000 kg of CO2 compared to standard vehicles in first 12 months
                • 65,000 registered subscribers

                Download the case study (pdf)

                Cost-efficient and clean police cars in Berlin

                • Tendering procedure, first of its kind using life-cycle costing (LCC)
                • Procurement of clean vehicle fleet for Berlin police force

                Download the case study (pdf)



                Replacement of diesel trucks with electric fleet in Stuttgart

                • City tenders for a fleet made up of entirely electric vehicles
                • 3-year contract for the successive replacement of diesel vehicles with electric trucks
                • Technical specifications included speed restriction devices to limit the vehicles to 25km/h

                Download the case study (pdf)

                Hybrid cars for city administration  in Ljubljana

                • Entire city car fleet replaced with 10% hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) 
                • 6 middle class hybrid vehicles leased
                • Estimated fuel consumption savings 30-50% compared to gasoline-only vehicles

                Download the case study (pdf)

                Green ambulance procurement in Stockholm

                • Innovative pre-procurement procedure initiated in dialogue with several ambulance builders 
                • New Mercedes-Benz model powered by bio-gas
                • Savings for biogas operation calculated at -22,000 SEK per year compared to petrol, +/- 0 SEK per year for petrol

                Download the case study (pdf)

                Clean streets in Barcelona

                • €250 million contract for street cleaning including procurement of clean vehicles
                • Dramatic reduction in noise and emissions 
                • 5% of the fleet now run on biodiesel, 35% on gas and 30% are electric or hybrid vehicles

                Download the case study (pdf)

                Cleaner vehicles and electricity in Slovenia

                • Life-Cycle Costing (LCC) and maximum CO2 levels led to offers for vehicles with lower CO2 emissions 
                • Decrease in emissions varied from 3g/km to 45 g/km per vehicle

                Download the case study (pdf)

                Framework agreement for zero-emission vehicles in Oslo

                • Zero-emission vehicle fleet by 2015
                • Framework agreement to replace 1,000 cars and vans with environmentally friendly options 
                • Pre-procurement activities to set up the framework agreement

                Download the case study (pdf)

                Low carbon waste collection services in Bristol

                • Service contract for city waste collection including the provision of vehicles, with an aim to reduce emissions by 720 tonnes per annum
                • Winning bid offered 32% CO2 reduction, exceeding the Council’s target of 25%
                • Best estimates for carbon savings stand at 12% for the first year of the contract

                Download the case study (pdf)

                Greener waste collection services in Malta

                • GPP criteria incorporated for the first time into ten tenders issued for waste collection services
                • Increasingly ambitious green criteria in tenders driving bidders to offer more competitive options

                Download the case study (pdf)

                CNG and Hybrid buses for Madrid, Spain

                • Open tender for 165 electricity or compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel bus fleet purchased in 3 sizes 12m, 8-10m and 18m 
                • One of Europe’s largest CNG fleets  - 3 CNG-hybrid buses and 142 CNG buses
                • 0-50% NOx emissions compared to equivalent diesel buses

                Download the case study (pdf)

                TfL ISIS Palencia URTP VAG Sofia Rotterdam Zagreb Stockholm TÜV Nord Bremen TTR ICLEI Europe - Local governments for Sustainability
                IEE Disclaimer